be reached in 2022. The increased capacity will primarily be
accomplished by increasing the density of the spent fuel racks,
and removing non-fuel items from the pools. The Clab facility
could be expanded to add a third pool, but that is not in the current application. The second pool at Clab increased the capacity
from 5,000 MT to the current 8,000 MT.
Sweden transports about 200 MT of spent fuel and about
1,000 cubic meters of operational waste each year. A new
transport ship, the Sigrid, will replace the Sigyn, which has
been used to transport these materials since 1982.
SKB submitted its license application for a spent fuel re-
pository at Forsmark and an encapsulation plant in Oskarshamn
in 2011. SKB is applying for the following:
• To continue to store spent fuel and reactor core compo-
nents on an interim basis.
• To construct and operate a facility (Clink) to store spent
fuel (for encapsulation) and core components. Clink, an integrated encapsulation and storage facility, would have a
capacity of 200 canisters per year.
• To construct and operate a facility for the final disposal of
spent fuel that is currently stored in Clab, and future spent
fuel discharges that will be generated from the ten currently
• Final disposal according to the KBS- 3 method with vertical
placement of the canisters (KBS-3V); the KBS- 3 method
is based on three protective barriers: copper canisters,
Bentonite clay, and the Swedish bedrock
• Water operations that are needed to build and operate the
• Storage for rock aggregate.
SKB’s application is being reviewed according to the Nuclear Act and the Environmental Code. Hearings by the Environmental Court are expected for fall of 2017. SKB needs five
approvals to start construction—from SSM, the Environmental
Court, the governments of Östhammar and Oskarshamn, and
the final decision will be made by the federal government. SKB
hopes the Swedish government will issue a construction permit in 2018, with operations planned for around 2030.
Neighboring Finland received governmental approval to
begin construction of its KBS- 3 repository in fall 2015, and is
now about ten years ahead of Sweden in the repository schedule,
primarily due to the fact that the Finnish schedule for implementation is set in law. Finland adopted the KBS- 3 method,
which SKB developed.
Sweden’s repository would have a design capacity of
6,000 canisters, which corresponds to 12,000 MT of spent
fuel. SKB hopes to begin construction in early 2019. The facility would be operated for sixty years, followed by closure and
Dr. Sjöland addressed the International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA) safeguards of nuclear materials. He noted that
normally an owner of nuclear material declares possession of
the material, then the IAEA and other authorities can inspect it
for verification. A final geological repository is different, however, because the nuclear material cannot be inspected once it
is emplaced in the repository, so the safeguards procedure before the material is emplaced must be strict and measurements
of each fuel assembly will be necessary. These measurements
will include decay heat, contents of the fuel, radionuclide inventory, burnup, initial enrichment, cooling, and more.
Some important questions that would need to be resolved
include how to deal with results that indicate non-compliance;
codes used at the time of declaration may be different than
codes used now, which could yield different results; mistakes
made in the records, and others.
Masumi Wataru, of the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), discussed the overall spent fuel
management policy in Japan. He noted that the government’s
action plan for spent fuel management included establishing a
council between the government and the electric power companies. This council met in November 2015, and subsequently
announced their intent to secure additional storage capacity
of approximately 6,000 metric tons (MT), to include 4,000 MT
by 2020 through “currently planned measures,” and another
2,000 MT by 2030. He also noted the Nuclear Regulation Authority’s (NRA) recommendation to promote dry storage of
CRIEPI is continuing research on both metal and concrete
casks. Research for metal casks includes studying the long-term seal performance of a metal gasket; for a concrete cask,
CRIEPI has conducted stress corrosion cracking evaluations,
and for both metal and concrete casks CRIEPI has evaluated
the aging effects of aluminum alloy for the fuel basket. In the
future, Japanese utilities will conduct a demonstration test program for the long-term dry storage of spent fuel.
Ryoji Asano, of Hitachi Zosen Corporation, presented an
update of spent fuel manufacturing and technology in Japan.
Dr. Asano noted that most of the spent fuel is stored in pools at
each power plant, and that most of these pools are nearly full,